Causes and symptoms of hard drive corruption
Why the hard drive gets corrupted or crashed? Below are some main causes.
> Logical damage: virus attack, bad sectors, unknown file
system, disk is not formatted, raw file system, lost/corrupted partition table…
> Physical damage: short-circuit failure, damaged chip,
corrupted header, dropped from high places, degradation of moving parts in the hard
disk over time…
> Improper human operations: sudden power failure, removed
without safe removal, shut down system improperly…
When the hard drive gets corrupted, you will notice the following symptoms or error
> Black screen appears after the system booting screen.
> No bootable device found, computer cannot boot successfully.
> Clicking or grinding sound from hard drive - it is going to die soon, or
won't boot already
> It takes a much longer time for accessing files and folders. Or the files and
folders become invisible and corrupt.
> The type of file system is raw, CHKDSK is not available for RAW drives.
>“X:\ is not accessible. The file or directory is corrupted and unreadable”.
How to fix corrupted hard drive using CMD?
As for hard disk corruption or failure, most users prefer to fix it via built-in
Windows CMD tool. So here we would like to show you how to fix corrupted hard drive without formatting in detail. Before proceeding, you had better recover data from
the damaged hard drive, or clone hard drive to another one
for data security.
To start the corrupted hard disk repair process, first of all, you should open
Command Prompt as administrator (Click Search box, input Command Prompt, right-click
the icon and choose Run as administrator).
Then, type the following command and press Enter to start the error checking and
fixing process for your corrupted drive:
“chkdsk F: /F”
Note: the first F: is the drive letter of the damaged hard drive, the second F means
fixing errors on the disk.
You can add more options to the command to make the scan process more rigorous.
“chkdsk F: /F /X /R”
/X If required, it forces the volume to dismount before the scan.
/R Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.
A GUI tool to repair damaged hard drive (Recommended)
If you think the steps of how to fix corrupted hard drive using CMD (running
CHKDSK.exe) are a little complicated, or encounter “CHKDSK is not available for RAW drives” error message during the repairing process,
you can turn to AOMEI Partition Assistant Standard, which can support Windows 10/8.1/8/7, XP and
Vista. It provides you with three different ways to repair damaged hard drive. Free download it and have a try now.
Step1. Install and run AOMEI Partition Assistant. Right click the partition you want
to check and select “Advanced”> “Check Partition”.
Step 2. In the pop-out window, you have three options available, check and fix error
by using chkdsk.exe, check error only using chkdsk.exe, and find bad sectors. Choose
one according to your needs and click “OK”. Then wait for the process to
Besides, you can also right-click the disk you want to scan and select “Surface Test” to check disk error.
If checking and repairing disk/partition by chkdsk.exe fails, then you can consider
the option of rebuilding the MBR of the damaged hard drive. Luckily, AOMEI Partition
Assistant could also perform this task.
Step 1. Open AOMEI Partition Assistant, right-click the corrupted disk and select
Step 2. Select a proper MBR type for your current operating system and click
Step 3. In the main interface, click “Apply” on the top left corner to commit the
Then, you can check whether the corrupted hard drive can be used normally again. If
not, you can try to reformat it via this software.
Step 1. In the main interface of AOMEI Partition Assistant, right-click any partition
of the corrupted disk and select “Format Partition”.
Step 2. Select a file system (ex: FAT32) and click “OK”.
Step 3. Click “Apply” to start formatting the partition.
Now, you know how to fix corrupted hard drive using cmd. If you want to repair the
damaged hard drive in an easy way, AOMEI Partition Assistant is a great choice.
Moreover, its Professional Edition comes with more advanced functions like securely erasing SSD, optimizing SSD
performance by 4K alignment and more.